Install Php Fpm Centos 7

admin13 April 2024Last Update :

Understanding PHP-FPM and CentOS 7

PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI implementation with some additional features useful for websites of any size, especially busier sites. It’s highly adaptable and has become the de facto standard for deploying PHP applications. CentOS 7, a stable, predictable, manageable, and reproducible platform derived from the sources of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), provides a robust foundation for hosting PHP applications.

Prerequisites for Installing PHP-FPM on CentOS 7

  • A server running CentOS 7
  • Access to a user account with sudo privileges
  • An active internet connection
  • Basic knowledge of Linux commands

Step-by-Step Installation of PHP-FPM on CentOS 7

Updating System Packages

Before installing any new software, it’s good practice to update your system packages to their latest versions. This can be done by executing the following command:

yum update -y

Enabling EPEL and Remi Repositories

CentOS 7’s default repositories do not contain the latest PHP versions. To install a more recent version of PHP and PHP-FPM, you need to enable the Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository and the Remi repository.

yum install epel-release yum-utils -y
yum install http://rpms.remirepo.net/enterprise/remi-release-7.rpm

After installing these repositories, enable the specific PHP version repository using the yum-config-manager tool. For example, to enable PHP 7.4, use:

yum-config-manager --enable remi-php74

Installing PHP and PHP-FPM

With the appropriate repository enabled, you can now install PHP along with PHP-FPM by running:

yum install php php-fpm -y

Configuring PHP-FPM

Once installed, PHP-FPM needs to be configured. The configuration files are located in /etc/php-fpm.d/. You may edit the default www.conf file or create a new pool configuration according to your requirements.

nano /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf

In this file, you can adjust settings such as user, group, listen owner, and others that control how PHP-FPM operates.

Starting and Enabling PHP-FPM Service

To start the PHP-FPM service and enable it to launch on boot, execute the following commands:

systemctl start php-fpm
systemctl enable php-fpm

Adjusting Firewall Settings

If your server is protected by a firewall and you expect to access PHP-FPM remotely, you’ll need to adjust your firewall settings accordingly. This step is typically only necessary if you’re setting up a separate PHP-FPM server to work with a web server on another host.

Integrating PHP-FPM with Web Servers

Configuring Nginx to Use PHP-FPM

Nginx does not process PHP files natively; it requires an external processor like PHP-FPM to handle PHP requests. Here’s how you can configure Nginx to pass PHP requests to PHP-FPM:

server {
    listen       80;
    server_name  example.com;
    root         /usr/share/nginx/html;

    location / {
        index index.php index.html index.htm;
    }

    location ~ .php$ {
        try_files $uri =404;
        fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php-fpm/www.sock;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
    }
}

Configuring Apache to Use PHP-FPM

Apache can also work with PHP-FPM via mod_proxy_fcgi module. Ensure that this module is enabled and then add the following configuration to your VirtualHost directive:

<FilesMatch .php$>
    SetHandler "proxy:fcgi://127.0.0.1:9000"
</FilesMatch>

Replace 127.0.0.1:9000 with the appropriate IP address and port or socket path that your PHP-FPM is listening on.

Troubleshooting Common PHP-FPM Issues on CentOS 7

Checking PHP-FPM Status

To check the status of PHP-FPM, use the systemctl command:

systemctl status php-fpm

Reviewing Logs for Errors

Logs are invaluable when troubleshooting issues. PHP-FPM logs can be found at /var/log/php-fpm/. Review the error log for any indications of what might be going wrong.

cat /var/log/php-fpm/error.log

Ensuring Proper Permissions and Ownership

Incorrect permissions or ownership on the socket file or the webroot directory can cause errors. Make sure that the web server user has the necessary permissions to read and write to these locations.

Optimizing PHP-FPM Performance

Tuning PHP-FPM Pool Settings

The performance of PHP-FPM can be significantly improved by tuning the pool settings such as pm.max_children, pm.start_servers, pm.min_spare_servers, and pm.max_spare_servers.

Opcode Caching with OPcache

Using an opcode cache like OPcache can improve PHP performance by storing precompiled script bytecode in shared memory, thus removing the need for PHP to load and parse scripts on each request.

yum install php-opcache

After installation, you can configure OPcache settings in the /etc/php.d/opcache.ini file.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is PHP-FPM?

PHP-FPM is an alternative FastCGI daemon for PHP that allows a website to handle strenuous loads. It also provides advanced features like adaptive process spawning which are excellent for heavy-loaded sites.

Why should I use PHP-FPM instead of traditional CGI-based methods?

PHP-FPM is more efficient and faster than the traditional CGI-based method because it processes requests through a pool of workers that are spawned in advance and waiting to execute PHP code, rather than creating a new process for every request.

Can I install multiple versions of PHP on CentOS 7?

Yes, it is possible to install multiple versions of PHP on CentOS 7 by using the Software Collections (SCL) repository or by installing different versions in separate directories through the Remi repository.

How do I switch between different PHP versions?

You can switch between different PHP versions by disabling one PHP module and enabling another using the yum-config-manager tool provided by the yum-utils package.

Is PHP-FPM compatible with both Apache and Nginx?

Yes, PHP-FPM can be used with both Apache and Nginx. Each web server has a different way of integrating with PHP-FPM, but they both support proxying requests to PHP-FPM.

References

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