Centos Stream 9 Docker Image

admin14 April 2024Last Update :

Understanding CentOS Stream 9

CentOS Stream is a rolling-release Linux distribution that sits between the upstream development in Fedora and the downstream development for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). It is designed to provide a clear view into what the next version of RHEL will look like, offering developers a platform to innovate and contribute to. With CentOS Stream 9, users get an early glimpse of RHEL 9, along with the opportunity to participate in its shaping.

The Shift from CentOS Linux to CentOS Stream

The transition from CentOS Linux to CentOS Stream marked a significant change in the CentOS project’s approach. While CentOS Linux was a downstream rebuild of RHEL, CentOS Stream is now an upstream development platform. This shift has implications for developers and enterprises who rely on a stable and predictable environment for their applications.

Getting Started with CentOS Stream 9 Docker Image

Docker images are lightweight, standalone, executable packages that include everything needed to run a piece of software, including the code, runtime, system tools, libraries, and settings. The CentOS Stream 9 Docker image provides a convenient way to deploy applications within containers using the CentOS Stream 9 operating system.

Why Use CentOS Stream 9 Docker Image?

Using the CentOS Stream 9 Docker image offers several advantages:

  • Consistency: Containers based on the CentOS Stream 9 image will behave consistently across different environments.
  • Security: CentOS Stream receives updates more frequently than traditional CentOS, which can lead to improved security.
  • Latest Features: Developers have access to the latest features and tools provided by the CentOS community.
  • Community Support: Being part of the CentOS ecosystem allows users to leverage community support and contribute back to the project.

Finding the Official CentOS Stream 9 Docker Image

The official CentOS Stream 9 Docker image can be found on Docker Hub or accessed directly using the Docker command-line interface. To pull the image, one would use the following command:

docker pull centos:stream9

This command fetches the latest CentOS Stream 9 image from the Docker repository.

Working with the CentOS Stream 9 Docker Image

Once you have pulled the CentOS Stream 9 Docker image, you can start using it to create containers that serve as isolated environments for your applications.

Creating a Container from the CentOS Stream 9 Image

To create a new container from the image, you can use the following Docker command:

docker run -it --name my_centos_stream_container centos:stream9 /bin/bash

This command creates and starts a new container named “my_centos_stream_container” and provides interactive shell access to it.

Installing Software Packages Inside the Container

CentOS Stream 9 uses the DNF package manager, which is a successor to YUM. To install software inside the container, you can use the `dnf` command. For example, to install the HTTP server, you would run:

dnf install -y httpd

Customizing CentOS Stream 9 Docker Images

For many use cases, you’ll want to customize the base CentOS Stream 9 image to fit your specific needs. This typically involves creating a custom `Dockerfile`.

Writing a Custom Dockerfile

A `Dockerfile` is a text document that contains all the commands a user could call on the command line to assemble an image. Here’s an example of a simple `Dockerfile` that installs Node.js on top of the CentOS Stream 9 image:

FROM centos:stream9
RUN dnf module enable -y nodejs:14
RUN dnf install -y nodejs

Building this `Dockerfile` would produce an image with Node.js pre-installed.

Best Practices for Dockerfiles

When creating Dockerfiles, it’s important to follow best practices to ensure your images are secure, efficient, and maintainable:

  • Minimize the number of layers by combining commands.
  • Remove unnecessary files and caches after installation commands.
  • Use multi-stage builds to minimize the final image size.
  • Specify exact versions of packages to ensure reproducibility.

Deploying Applications with CentOS Stream 9 Containers

Containers excel at providing consistent environments for application deployment. By deploying your applications within a CentOS Stream 9 container, you can take advantage of the stability and features offered by the operating system.

Example Application Deployment

Let’s consider deploying a Python web application using Flask. You would need to create a `Dockerfile` that sets up Python, installs dependencies, and configures the application to run. Here’s a simplified example:

FROM centos:stream9
RUN dnf install -y python3-pip
COPY . /app
RUN pip3 install -r requirements.txt
CMD ["python3", "app.py"]

This `Dockerfile` copies the application source code into the image, installs the required Python packages, and sets the default command to run the app.

Managing State and Persistence in CentOS Stream 9 Containers

Stateful applications or services may require data persistence beyond the lifecycle of a container. Docker volumes and bind mounts can be used with CentOS Stream 9 containers to manage persistent data.

Using Docker Volumes

Docker volumes are the preferred mechanism for persisting data generated by and used by Docker containers. To create a volume and attach it to a container, you can use the following commands:

docker volume create my_volume
docker run -v my_volume:/data centos:stream9

This attaches the newly created volume to the `/data` directory inside the container.

Bind Mounts for Development

Bind mounts may be useful during development to link the container directly to the source code on the host machine. This can be done with the `-v` flag as well, specifying the path on the host:

docker run -v /path/on/host:/path/in/container centos:stream9

Securing CentOS Stream 9 Docker Containers

Security is paramount when deploying containers in any production environment. CentOS Stream 9 comes with SELinux enabled by default, which adds an additional layer of security.

SELinux and Container Security

SELinux (Security-Enhanced Linux) is a mandatory access control (MAC) security structure implemented in the kernel. When running Docker containers on CentOS Stream 9, SELinux policies help to isolate containers from each other and from the host system.

Regular Updates and Patch Management

Keeping the CentOS Stream 9 Docker image updated is crucial for security. Regularly pulling the latest image from Docker Hub ensures that you have the most recent security patches. Additionally, regularly updating the packages within your containers with `dnf update` is recommended.

Monitoring and Logging with CentOS Stream 9 Containers

Monitoring and logging are essential for maintaining the health and performance of your containers. Tools such as Prometheus for monitoring and ELK Stack for logging can be integrated with your CentOS Stream 9 containers.

Integrating Monitoring Tools

Prometheus can be set up to scrape metrics from your containers, giving insights into resource usage and performance. A `Dockerfile` might include steps to install and configure Prometheus agents within your CentOS Stream 9-based containers.

Setting Up Centralized Logging

The ELK Stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana) can be used for centralized logging. Containers can be configured to send logs to Logstash, which processes and stores them in Elasticsearch, making them accessible through Kibana’s UI.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between CentOS Linux and CentOS Stream?

CentOS Linux was a downstream rebuild of RHEL, meaning it was released after RHEL and was essentially a free clone. CentOS Stream, however, is an upstream development platform that provides a preview of what the next minor RHEL release will look like.

Is CentOS Stream 9 suitable for production environments?

While CentOS Stream 9 is more cutting-edge than RHEL, it is still built on a solid foundation. However, organizations should carefully evaluate whether the rolling-release model aligns with their need for stability and predictability in production environments.

How do I keep my CentOS Stream 9 Docker containers secure?

To keep your containers secure, regularly update both the CentOS Stream 9 Docker image and the packages within your containers. Also, make sure to follow best practices for Dockerfile creation and container deployment, and utilize SELinux for enhanced security.

Can I use CentOS Stream 9 containers for stateful applications?

Yes, you can use Docker volumes or bind mounts to handle state and persistence in your CentOS Stream 9 containers, ensuring that your stateful applications function correctly.

Where can I find more information about CentOS Stream 9?

More information about CentOS Stream 9 can be found on the official CentOS website and in the CentOS Stream release notes. The CentOS community forums and mailing lists are also valuable resources for support and discussions.


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